Throughout all my years of work in various positions it seems like I've mostly enjoyed sharing my thoughts on paper and through speaking engagements, informing and encouraging. I desire to do my part in sharing and currently feel the need to focus on travel-related subjects as well as life experiences. I look forward to our journeys together, around the world.
Maybe I haven’t taken time to notice but it seems like the butterflies are not as plenteous this year. I enjoy seeing these graceful forms of creation, and their struggles to become what they were destined to become.
I’m thinking of what we did for the monarch butterflies during the past two years to help them populate. I prepared a little information and gathered some of our photos as well as video clips.
Since the lizards enjoy the caterpillars so much I built a crude little vertical, rectangular, screened-in house for the monarchs to munch on milkweed. And, WOW, did they munch. It was amazing how they multiplied. I had a challenge keeping sufficient milkweed plants in their house.
I stopped by Ace Hardware one day and happened to notice this nice, larger, butterfly house. They weren’t selling it but it sure posed some ideas of expansion. Well, back to the growth process.
I think you’ll get a laugh out of the video piece as one monarch can’t get a little piece of leaf off its antennae (tentacles), and the challenge of finding a place to “hang out.”
We can learn from the butterfly – to not give up but persevere through the challenges. That’s what I thought when I looked back over my photos and video clips.
The monarchs really enjoy feasting on the milkweed plants, and then they mate. Females lay their eggs . Caterpillars hatch, feast, chrysalize, and metamorphose into new butterflies, which set off northward toward yet new breeding grounds.
Apparently many believe the monarch butterflies are the most beautiful of all butterflies, and are considered the “king” of the butterflies, hence the name “monarch.”
Monarch butterflies go through four stages during one life cycle, and through four generations in one year.
generations are actually four different butterflies going through these four
stages during the year until it is time to start over again with stage one and
Here is some neat information from https://www.monarch-butterfly.com/. In March and April the eggs are laid on milkweed plants. They hatch into baby caterpillars, also called larvae. It takes about four days for the eggs to hatch. Then the baby caterpillar doesn’t do much more than eat the milkweed in order to grow.
After about two weeks, the caterpillar will be fully-grown and find a place to attach itself so it can start the process of metamorphosis. It will attach itself to a stem or a leaf using silk and transform into a chrysalis. Although, from the outside, the 10 days of the chrysalis phase seems to be a time when nothing is happening, it is really a time of rapid change.
Within the chrysalis the old body parts of the caterpillar are undergoing a remarkable transformation, called metamorphosis, to become the beautiful parts that make up the butterfly that will emerge.
The monarch butterfly will emerge from the pupa and fly away, feeding on flowers and just enjoying the short life it has left, which is only about two to six weeks. This first generation monarch butterfly will then die after laying eggs for generation number two.
The second generation of monarch butterflies is born in May and June, and then the third generation will be born in July and August. These monarch butterflies will go through exactly the same four-stage life cycle as the first generation did, dying two to six weeks after it becomes a beautiful monarch butterfly.
Let’s enjoy life all around us and take time to think about the butterfly. They can help us relate to life a little better.
Northeast Florida has its first “Express Lanes” that opened recently on Interstate 295 (I-295) West Beltway in Jacksonville. Travelers will encounter the new restricted lanes on part of the south side of town near Orange Park.
General purpose lanes with no tolls will remain while tolls for the two Express Lanes in each direction will fluctuate depending on traffic volume. The tolls are designed to help balance traffic while allowing travelers a more predictable travel speed, at a minimum of 45 m.p.h.
According to the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), Express Lanes will use time-of-day pricing. “Customers choosing to travel in the express lanes will only be charged during rush hour travel periods. A $0.50 static toll will be implemented Monday through Friday from 6:00 AM–10:00 AM and from 3:00 PM–7:00 PM. Customers will not be charged a toll to use the express lanes during all other times.”
Depending on the volume of vehicles, the toll may increase during peak traffic.
Toll roads are not popular in northeast Florida and were removed years ago. At least travelers have a choice with the Express Lanes, while the effort helps with traffic congestion.
Jacksonville is one of the major locations for travelers entering and leaving Florida, especially on the east coast. Travelers will notice construction on major highways in and around Jacksonville, including work for additional Express Lanes. It’s best to check your routes beforehand, and have a map handy, as GPS directions may not be updated as frequently as the highway patterns change.
Apps like Florida 511 (FL511) and WAZE provide fairly up-to-date information; but you may still need a map to navigate construction and by-pass routes in case of an emergency on the major highways.
If you need a SunPass during your visit to Florida, which could give you a discount on certain tolls, you may obtain one at a welcome center as you enter the state. Certain retailers have them too. I suggest checking the SunPass website for more information, including where the SunPass may be used in other states. https://sunpass.com
Memorial Day in the United States is Monday. Many are enjoying friends and family during the long weekend. Merchants have sales going on. I saw some fireworks for sale in a grocery store a couple of days ago. I heard two sports radio talents talking about going to the beach, relaxing, cooking out and other activities. At least they did mention to remember those serving in the military. So, what is Memorial Day and how should we celebrate, or should we?
Memorial Day is not Veterans Day. It’s not the Fourth of July. It’s not Labor Day and other typical
Memorial Day is an American holiday, observed on the last Monday of May, honoring those who died while serving in the U.S. military. It was originally known as Decoration Day, originating years after the Civil War, which ended in 1865 and claimed more lives than any conflict in U.S. history. Memorial Day became an official federal holiday in 1971. https://www.history.com/topics/holidays/memorial-day-history
By the late 1860s, Americans in various towns and cities
had begun holding springtime tributes to the countless fallen soldiers,
decorating their graves with flowers and reciting prayers.
During World War I the United States found itself embroiled in another major conflict. The time of remembrance was then changed to remember American military personnel who died in all wars.
Memorial Day continued to be observed on May 30 for decades
until Congress passed the Uniform Monday Holiday Act in 1968, creating Memorial
Day as the last Monday in May, which established Memorial Day as a federal
holiday that enabled a three-day weekend for federal employees.
Service members, veterans and their families know there is a big difference between Memorial Day and Veterans Day. While Veterans Day, Nov. 11, is a day set aside to celebrate all veterans, Memorial Day is a somber holiday dedicated to honor military fallen, with a special focus on those killed during military service or through enemy contact. https://www.military.com/memorial-day
Both holidays often include parades, ceremonies and celebrations. But although Memorial Day also traditionally marks the beginning of summer with picnics and parties, many in the military community believe that at least a portion of it should be set aside to mourn and honor the fallen.
want to go a litter further though. Yes,
Memorial Day was established for those who bore the weight of battle to the last
degree, but what about those who came back changed to the degree they felt
there was no reason for them to continue living?
Don’t these military members experience a certain death, whether physical injury like loss of limb, traumatic brain injury and mental health challenges? While they may be here physically, mentally some may be elsewhere, or think there is no need to continue living – but yes, there is a need and a reason.
We owe our support and gratitude to those who served – going when and where the nation needed them.
I know the U.S. Veterans Administration (VA) is doing a great work and is constantly working on behalf of our veterans. One of their studies can be found at https://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/docs/2016suicidedatareport.pdf. And, I realize the national suicide rate continues to climb with our general population. Let’s continue getting to the root cause though and never abandon our pursuit to not loose one life.
Each life is precious, deserving the best care and support possible. I recall a personal situation where one Soldier returned from combat. His mother noticed a change in behavior, how he was more quiet and secluded, as well as not sleeping well. This behavior had changed from the son she knew before deployment.
The mother notified the unit the Soldier deployed with. The unit made an appointment with the VA and he received medication. The mother called weeks later. She mentioned her son had stopped taking his medication and was missing for over a week. He was later found by law enforcement. Full military funeral honors were given to honor this fallen Solder.
There are so many factors related to the mental health of those
serving in stressful situations, and encountering things the human brain has difficulty
comprehending. Post-traumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) is a common term we’ve head for years now. Stress can lead to deep mental health
concerns if not managed.
I personally think the “disorder” terminology should be discarded. Let’s deal with the post-traumatic stress, or
even depression – helping the person with his or her individual behavior,
concerns and providing all that can be provided within our medical achievements.
With proper recognition of symptoms, showing care, effective
individual treatment and being a caring community, we can curtail the loss
Still, may we continue remembering those who have passed from our presence – giving their all in the line-of-duty.
How do other countries remember those
who died fighting for their freedoms, or who have experienced the burden of conflict? Is freedom even important that one would die
trying to gain it, or keep it?
Let’s never forget those who sacrificed
so much, and their families who long to celebrate with their loved one if he or
she was here.
I have had the solemn honor of meeting
with family members when they first learned of their military member’s
death. I still see the pain and the
sorrow. I tried to comfort and help families
the best I could during some of their darkest moments.
I’ve had the solemn honor of rendering military honors with firing salutes, folding the U.S. flag for presentation, and presenting the flag of the United States of America to the closest next-of-kin, softly speaking these words: “On behalf of the President of the United States, the United States Army (or Air Force) and a grateful nation, please accept this flag as a symbol of our appreciation for your loved one’s honorable and faithful service.
I will always remember these special moments. I have a special affection for these Families who remain to carry on the remembrance of their Soldiers.
So, Memorial Day 20l9, let’s take a few minutes to at least remember and show respect.
We can still celebrate because that is one of the reasons our brothers and sisters fought so valiantly, to their last breath, to gain and maintain these freedoms we enjoy. Let’s also include those who are still with us today, and not let them become a statistic too.
It’s safe boating week and time to think more clearly about our activities in and around the water. Whether you boat or float it’s good to recognize safe procedures. If you are not safe in the boat then it’s likely you’ll float in the water; and hopefully not be subdued by the elements. If you float and are not careful then you may encounter a boat. https://safeboatingcampaign.com
In 2017, the U.S. Coast Guard reported 658 deaths in the U.S. from boating incidents, with 75 percent of those deaths caused by drowning. Of those deaths, 85 percent are reported as not wearing their life jackets.
In the U.S. there is currently a national boat safety emphasis going on now. National Safe Boating Week kicked off with “Wear Your Life Jacket to Work Day,” May 17. Although I don’t work in a workplace any longer I don’t recall seeing anyone wearing a flotation device around. Did you? #safeboating
The safe boating campaign goes on throughout the boating season, whenever that is in your own area around the world.
I’m curious! How are these safety procedures presented and followed in other places of the world?
The Safe Boating Campaign reminds boaters to follow these safety tips:
Take a boating safety course.
Wear a U.S. Coast Guard approved life jacket.
Watch the weather.
No distracted boating.
Travel at safe speeds.
Never boat under the influence.
Have more than one communication device that works when wet.
As the new world project that would eventually become the United States of America continued to develop roots, much of the development of La Florida is attributed to the Spanish military and the missionaries. Let’s take a look at the St. Francis Barracks in St. Augustine, Florida as an example.
In 1588, Franciscan missionaries settled in northeast Florida around St. Augustine. For 175 years, the Convento de San Francisco served as headquarters for those who labored on behalf of the Spanish king to bring the Catholic faith to Native Americans who inhabited “la Florida.”
Following Governor Moore’s siege of St. Augustine in 1702, the destroyed buildings of the mission were reconstructed using coquina taken from the king’s quarry on Anastasia Island.
In 1763, the British took possession of Florida and designated St. Augustine as capital of the colony of East Florida. A decision was made by military authorities to occupy the former Franciscan mission and convert the chapel originally constructed in the 1730s and 1740s into a barracks. These barracks were supportive of operations at the Castillo de San Marcos (old fort) almost a mile to the north.
The friary where the missionaries lived was also renovated, with
fireplaces added to the enlarged living quarters. When the Spanish returned to
St. Augustine in 1783, the Franciscans initially occupied the site but were
soon replaced by soldiers of the Spanish garrison.
Massachusetts claims the first official muster of troops
began on December 13, 1636 as the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
ordered that the colony’s militia be organized into three regiments: the North,
South and East Regiments. The regiments
were needed for a growing threat from the Pequot Indians. The military prepared with weekly drills and
guard details. In 1637, the East
Regiment officially mustered for the first time on the Salem Common to mobilize
in its defense. This day is identified
as the birth of the modern-day National Guard.
I guess it depends on your each person’s perspective concerning who had the “First Muster.” Regardless, our freedoms are won or lost by those who train, prepare, equip and respond to the needs of the citizenry, whether it is from local citizens, local law enforcement, state military and law enforcement or federal military and law enforcement.
I also reflect on the sacrifices of our Native Americans. They lost so much as the new world was developed over the years. The struggles for them to maintain their own freedom were met with much despair and loss as myriads began flowing into the territories. We owe much to our Native Americans.
May is military appreciation month and we in the United States are appreciative of those who rise to the occasion to obtain, keep and maintain that which we hold so dear.
We who serve, and served, consider it a great honor to protect those who long to be free with certain unalienable rights – among them being life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. May we never fail nor falter. We salute those who continue holding up the torch of freedom with their very lives on the line!
Castillo! Is it a castle or a fort? Both. As a follow-up post about Castillo de San Marcos in downtown St. Augustine, Florida, I want to reiterate that it is the oldest masonry fort in the United States with unique North American architecture. It remains as the only surviving 17th century military construction in the country.
Does it look like a castle? Well … maybe. I think it looks more like a fort though. Opening in 1695, Castillo became a showpiece for military defense engineering.
A monument not only of stone and mortar but of human determination and endurance, the Castillo de San Marcos symbolizes the clash between cultures which ultimately resulted in the unique, unified United States. Still resonant with the struggles of an earlier time, these original walls provide tangible evidence of America’s grim but remarkable history. https://www.nps.gov/casa/learn/historyculture/construction.htm
Thank you Italy for providing the star shape design from the 15th century. I’m amazed how the architecture fit the technology of the day. Of the major architectural variations, the “bastion system,” named for the projecting diamond or angle shaped formations added onto the fort walls, was the most commonly and effectively used to combat the new weapons – cannons.
The Spanish occupying Florida knew about the coquina rock formations along the coastline, but they were soldiers, not stonemasons or builders. Wood structures would not last against the increasing firepower and technology of invading forces.
The British, settling to the north, edged into the Carolinas. Spanish Florida was only a short sail away. How could the Spanish keep the British from taking over Florida? Apparently, the goal of the British was to set up a base of operations to attack the Spanish treasure fleets and the more wealthy colonies of the Spanish Caribbean.
To help counter this threat, the Spanish began construction on the Castillo de San Marcos in 1672 – using coquina.
Coquina Rock to the Rescue
Coquina stone was quarried in the area of present-day Anastasia State Park on Anastasia Island (part of St. Augustine). Military engineers and stonemasons were brought from Spain. Convicts and additional soldiers were brought from Cuba. Oyster shells were burned into lime and mixed with sand and water to make mortar.
Coquina rock is a type of sedimentary rock such as limestone. It was formed by the deposits and cementing together of mineral and organic particles on the ocean floor or other bodies of water on the surface.
The coquina rock used at Castillo de San Marcos was likely retrieved from the formation that stretches from St. Augustine to Palm Beach County, Florida.
According to geologists, thousands of years ago, the tiny coquina clam donax variabilis lived in the shallow waters of coastal Florida, as they still do today. These are the small pink, lavender, yellow, or white shells one sees along the beach at the waterline.
As the resident clam died, the shells accumulated in layers, year after year, century after century, for thousands of years, forming submerged deposits several feet thick. During the last ice age, sea levels dropped, exposing these shell layers to air and rain. Eventually, the shell became covered with soil, then trees and other vegetation. Rain water percolating through the dead vegetation and soil picked up carbon dioxide and became carbonic acid, the same ingredient that makes soda fizz. (National Park Service)
By the way, one of the best coquina rock formations is at Washington Oaks, between Crescent Beach and Marineland, Florida, on the Atlantic Ocean. It’s worth a trip to enjoy the beach and see the rock formations. https://www.floridastateparks.org/learn/geology-coquina-rocks
As the weak acid soaked downward, it dissolved some of the calcium in the shells, producing calcium carbonate, which solidified in lower layers, much like how flowstone and stalactites are formed in caves. This material “glued” the shell fragments together into a porous type of limestone we now call coquina, which is Spanish for “tiny shell”.
Given its light and porous nature, coquina would seem to be a poor choice of building material for a fort. However the Spanish had few options. Coquina was the only stone available on the northeast coast of La Florida. The porous coquina actually became an unexpected benefit – with its mixture that contained millions of microscopic air pockets that allowed it to compress.
The walls being constructed for the Castillo would be untested but the coquina was the only way to give the Spanish a fighting chance against the British. The inner courtyard was designed for the town residents to take refuge when under attack.
It’s a good thing the Spanish acted quickly to build a stronger structure. In 1702, Governor James Moore of Charleston led his English forces against St. Augustine and the Castillo. He captured the town and set his cannon up among the houses to bombard the fortress.
What happened? Strangely, instead of shattering, the coquina stone merely compressed and absorbed the shock of the hit. The cannon balls just bounced off or sunk in a few inches. The shell rock worked! I think the bastion, angled system contributed quite a bit too.
A cannon ball fired at more solid material, such as granite or brick, would shatter the wall into flying shards; but cannon balls fired at the walls of the Castillo burrowed their way into the rock and stuck there, much like a bb would if fired into Styrofoam. So the thick coquina walls absorbed, or deflected projectiles rather than yielding to them, providing a surprisingly long-lived fortress (or is it a castle)?
Even when General Oglethorpe attacked St. Augustine in 1740 and bombarded the Castillo for 27 days, the walls held firm. The rock made of seashells turned out to be an excellent building material. When the Spanish decided to fortify the southern approaches to St. Augustine by building Fort Matanzas later that year, they again used coquina stone, and, like the Castillo, this smaller fort was never captured.
What if the Spanish did not have this stone? If not for coquina, perhaps the British would have captured St. Augustine much earlier than 1763, when they finally gained Florida by treaty. If the British gained Florida earlier, it’s possible the course of the American Revolution would have changed. Maybe the U.S. would still be a part of Great Britain. The history of the U.S.A. could have been much different had it not been for little clams, and coquina.
Fort or Castle?
Again, is the Castillo a fort or castle? I guess there isn’t a clear answer. According to Wikipedia, a castle is a private, fortified residence. Merriam-Webster dictionary says a castle is “a large fortified building or set of buildings; a retreat safe against intrusion or invasion.” Oxford English Dictionary says it is “a large building, typically of the medieval period, fortified against attack with thick walls, battlements, towers, and in many cases a moat.”
The Castillo de San Marcos fits all of those definitions in one way, or at one time or another. When it was first built, the governor of St. Augustine resided inside the building, which would make it a “private fortified residence.” It is most definitely a large, fortified building that provided a retreat safe for the people of St. Augustine against invasion. At one time it housed about 1,500 people for 51 days while the English laid siege. It also has thick walls, battlements, towers and a moat.
Most of the fortifications the Spanish built in the new world were named Castillos. Perhaps it is a hold-over from medieval times, meant to inspire their people and instill fear in their enemies? The Spanish were fond of decoration and embellishment in the physical designs of their fortresses; they may have felt the same about their names. As of yet, there has been no documentation found explaining exactly why they chose to use Castillo rather than Fuerte or Fortaleza. However, it is interesting to note that the wooden fort preceding the current stone one was also called Castillo de San Marcos.
Also interesting is the fact that it does later become referred to as a fort. When the British gained Florida through the 1763 Treaty of Paris, they renamed the building Fort Saint Mark. The United States Army decided in 1825 to call it Fort Marion. Under those occupations, it was indeed used solely for military functions.
The British and the Americans did not plan to use it as a place of refuge for the citizens of St. Augustine. They both used the fort as barracks, for military storage, and a few times as a military prison. The National Park Service and United States Congress decided to restore its original name in 1942, in honor of its unique Spanish history, so it went back to Castillo de San Marcos for good. I say it’s a fort.
of the reasons Castillo de San Marcos in St. Augustine continues to stand today
is the weaponry to protect it and the ability to absorb incoming rounds.
The U.S. National Park Service oversees and maintains the Castillo and provides some history highlights. “The cannon appeared in Europe about the beginning of the 12th century. Early cannons or “gonnes” (hence the name gonne or gunne powder) tended to be gigantic, unwieldy monsters as dangerous to the user as to the intended enemy. Yet, they were still frightening, helping to ensure their place on the field of war.
Cannon composition improved over time, particularly during the Middle Ages, resulting in the “artillery” used in the 18th and 19th centuries. Some were made of iron and some of bronze.
As you can imagine, cast iron was preferred since it was lighter and less expensive; however, it also presented maintenance challenges, particularly around coastal, salty environments. Bronze tended to hold up much longer but was more expensive. Location helped determine the type of cannon to use too.
iron cannons deteriorated more quickly and were discarded, bronze cannons could
be melted down and recast into a new weapon. You can imagine the beauty of the
artwork in the bronze cannons when they were new and shiny. One can still see some of the details in
these old pieces of devastation AND art.
Although I’m not an artillery expert, you can interpret the long cannons were designed for longer distance – like reaching out and saying hello to the ships sneaking in from the Atlantic Ocean. The 18 and 24-inch balls can sure do some damage to these floating structures.
To me, the short cannons are like a shotgun. They can certainly wreak havoc on troop movements trying to approach the fort. Some of these short cannons remind you of big, round pots that blast out multiple projectiles. (See those along the seawall in the image at the end of the post.)
bronze guns at the Castillo are covered in a green patina due to the environmental
elements. While iron rusts, bronze or
copper turns green.
The cannons have several key features in common. At the rear you can find the name of the maker, the city where it was made and the date when the gun was manufactured. Just above the back toward the muzzle is the royal coat of arms of the Spanish King & Queen who reigned during the making of the weapon.
closer to the front of the gun, a banner bears the cannon’s name. Two of the
Castillo’s cannons also have a second, larger banner that reads “Violati Fulmina
Regis” (thunderbolts of an offended/angry king). Each trunnion (the pivot bars
on the sides of the gun) lists where the metal was acquired, the gun’s
maintenance record, and how much the weapon weighs. Other features found on
some of the cannons include capture dates stamped by the US Army. https://www.nps.gov/casa/learn/historyculture/arms.htm
I find it interesting that the Castillo de San Marcos is a museum of cannons found in various places around the world and may not be the exact ones protecting the fort during the ages. The National Park Service depicts where respective cannons are placed on, and in. the fort as well as some of their origin. https://www.nps.gov/casa/learn/historyculture/artillery-tour.htm
1. 24-pounder cast iron. Circa 1750. Transferred to the National Park Service (NPS) with the fort in 1935. 2. Same as above. 3. 4-pounder bronze. Seville, 1737. Named La Sibila (The Fortune Teller). Gifted to NPS, 1953. 4. 16-pounder bronze. Barcelona, 1743. Named El Camilo (The Camillus). Transferred from West Point Military Academy, 1962. Interesting note: Made from recycled bronze. 5. 24-pounder cast iron. Circa 1690. Transferred 1935. 6. 18-pounder cast iron. Circa 1750. Transferred 1935. 7. Same as #6. 8. 24-pounder cast iron. Circa 1750. Transferred 1935. 9. 18-pounder cast iron. Circa 1690. Made in Sweden. Found in Savannah River, 1914. Gifted to NPS, 1955. 10. 15-inch bronze mortar. Barcelona, 1724. Loaned to NPS, 1971. 11. 12-inch bronze mortar. Seville, 1784. Gifted to NPS, 1958. 12. 8-pounder bronze. Seville, 1798. Named El Uenado (The Deer). Gifted to NPS, 1978. Interesting note: U’s and V’s were sometimes interchanged historically. 13. 6-pounder bronze. Seville, 1762. Transferred from West Point Military Academy, 1962. 14. 18-pounder bronze. Seville, 1735. Named El Daedalo (The Daedalus). Loaned to NPS, 1971. 15. 12-pounder bronze. Seville, 1798. Named Facheno (Braggart). Received from West Point Military Academy, 1962. 16. 4-pounder bronze. Seville, 1795. Named Abilud (older brother, or Biblical name). Gifted to NPS, 1960. 17. 2-pounder cast iron. Circa 1700. Transferred 1935. 18. Same as above 19. 12-inch bronze mortar. Barcelona, 1783. Named El Icaro (The Icarus). Gifted to NPS, 1960. 20. 12-inch bronze mortar. Seville, 1807. Named Abajado (Crouching One). Gifted to NPS, 1960. 21. 4-pounder cast iron. Circa 1700. Found buried in St. Augustine. Gifted to NPS, 1954. 22. 15-inch bronze mortar. Barcelona, 1724. Loaned to NPS, 1971. Interesting note: Has a rare Luis I crest. 23. 12-inch bronze mortar. Seville, 1774. Gifted to NPS, 1958. 24. 4-pounder bronze. Barcelona, 1768. Named El Jazmin (The Jasmine). Transferred to NPS, 1962. 25. 3-pounder cast iron. Circa 1690. Found buried in St. Augustine. Gifted to NPS, 1954.
Located in Courtyard and Inside Rooms 26. 18-pounder bronze. Seville, 1764. Named El Milanes (The one from Milan). Loaned to NPS, 1971. 27. Fragment of 16-pounder cast iron cannon. Circa 1690. Exploded in 1702, killing 3 crew members. Found buried in Castillo’s moat.
Located in Water Battery (Seawall) 28. – 35. Cast iron howitzers of various sizes. A design combining a cannon and a mortar. Circa 1815-1846. Transferred 1935. 36. 32-pounder cast iron. United States Model 1841 Seacoast Cannon. Found in the waters off Naval Station Mayport, Jacksonville, FL. Transferred to NPS, 1978.